Jumaat, 16 Mac 2012


1945 - 1949
The British government sent Harold MacMichael with the Malayan Union plan and managed to coerce Malay Rulers into signing agreements. Edward Gent arrived as the first Governor but was met with bitter opposition by Malay nationalists, that led Onn Jaafar to organize the Malays into a political movement and formed United Malays National Organisation(UMNO). At the same time, the Malays radical groups under Ahmand Boestamam and Ishak Hj Muhammad established the youth movement Angkatan Permuda Insaf(API), UNMO’s singular oppositions finally led to the replacement of Malayan Union by the Federation of Malaya. The communist launched an insurgency against the government in 1948, which brought the ‘declaration of emergency’. In the face of communist’s threat, Tan Cheng Lock formed the Malayan Chinese Association(MCA) to look after the welfare of the Chinese Community. The British administration proposed jus soli – citizenship by birth – as the basis for independence but was rejected by the Malay Nationalists, including Aminuddin Baki, Mahathir Mohammad, Abdullah Ayub and Siti Hasmah. To appease Malay opposition to jus soli and improve their conditions RIDA – Rural Industrial Development Authority – was established. Onn Jaafar assumed the first chairmanship but Malay opposition to jus soli continued. Due to various reasons, Onn left UMNO and Tunku Abdul Rahman was elected Head after defeating Ahmad Fuad who in turn left UMNO form the Pan – Malayan Islamic Party (now PAS).

malaysiahistory 1950-1954
1950 - 1954
British High Commissioner Henry Gurney was kill in the communist’s ambush at Fraser’s Hill. The Bukit Kepong police station was also attacked and most of the policeman died defending it. With Gerald Templer appointed to replace Gurney, new strategies were put in place to defeat the communist. Strategic new villages were built in remote areas to deny communists food and medical supplies. ‘Home Guards’ were formed to secure the new villages. Women and old men were recruited and taught the use of firearms. Commonwealth forces were brought in to help fight the terrorists. Templers’s strategies of winning the ‘heart and mind’ eventually brought victory and many communist infested districts were declared ‘white areas’. In the meanwhile UMNO and MCA formed the Alliance Party and won the contest in the first Municipal election in Kuala Lumpur and formed the Kuala Lumpur Municipal Council. The cry for independence gathered momentum with certain persons mocking the term ‘merdeka’ (independence) as ‘mentega’ (butter). A small section of nationalists wanted to fight for independence and they formed the ‘Barisan 33’ (Front 33), The victory of UMNO and MCA in the Kuala Lumpur Municapal election attracted the Malayan Indian Congress(MIC) under V.T. Sambanthan to join the Alliance in late 1954.

1955 - 1959malaysiahistory 1955-1959
The first federal election saw the Alliance party symbolized the ‘sailing ship’, overwhelmingly winning 51 of 52 seats. Tunku Abdul Rahman became the first Chief Minister of Malaya. Together with the Chief Minister of Singapore David Marshall and Tan Cheng Lock. Tunku met Chin Peng, the Malayan Communist Party Secretary-General in Baling to negotiate for their unconditional surrender and return to society. Chin Peng countered with a number of impossible demands, which brought the negotiation to a halt. Later, Tunku headed a Malayan delegation to London to discuss independence. The mission finally returned with success and to a tumultuous reception at the Bandar Hilir square, in Melaka. It was the headline for all newspapers. The Merdeka Stadium was built as a historic site for the Proclamation of Independence. The Tunku became the first Prime Minister with Abdul Razak Hussein as his deputy. The Yamtuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan was proclaimed as the first Yang Di Pertuan Agung (the King) of the Federation. As a strategy for national development, Federal Land Development Authority (Felda), Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka and Bank Negara (Central Bank) were established. A new national school system and adult education were introduced. The first post-independent election saw the Alliance winning a landslide victory against the PMIP, Parti Negara, Labour Party and the People’s Progressive Party.

1960 - 1964malaysiahistory 1960-1964
The first Yang Di Pertuan Agong passed away and the Sultan of Selangor, Sultan Hishamudin Alam Shah, was installed as the second Ruler. Shortly, His Majesty passed away and Raja of Perlis, Tuanku Syed Putra, was installed as the third Ruler. Several major projects such as the Dewan Bahasa Pustaka (DBP). Maternity Hospital, Merdeka Stadium, Parliamen Building and the National Museum were initiated. Syed Nasir Ismail, the new Director of DBP, launched the ‘Use the National Language’ campaigns. The University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur was established as a division of University Malaya Singapore and eventually moved to Kuala Lumpur. A contingent of the Malayan armed forces joined the UN Command for peacekeeping duties in the Congo. Rubber and tin remained the major sources of national income. Television in black and white made its debut. Due to several oppositions, the Federation of Malaysia as proposed by the Tunku was vindicated by the Report of Lord Cobbold, who ascertained the wished of the people of North Borneo, Sarawak, Brunei and Singapore to join Malaya in the Federation. Brunei pulled out at the last moment but Singapore remained. Indonesia’s strong opposition lead President Soekarno to declare a policy of military ‘confrontation’ but was soon defeated. President Macapagal of the Philippines mildly opposed Malaysia and proposed the formation of the greater ‘Malay’ confederation – Maphilindo. The Alliance Party easily won the first Malaysian general election in 1964 and the People’s Action Party under Lee Kuan Yew retained control of Singapore.

1965 - 1969 malaysiahistory 1965-1969
Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah of Terengganu was installed as the fourth Ruler. The PAP-initiated slogan ‘Malaysian Malaysia’ aroused a deep resentment among the Malays and the Tunku had no choice but to declare Singapore separated. PAP was de-registered but re-emerged as the DAP (Democratic Action Party). Several major institutions were established including the National Mosque, Bank Bumiputera, Federal Marketing Authority (FAMA), MARA (the Indigenous People’s Trust Council), Angkasapuri (radio-television Malaysia building), Pernas (National Corporation), Bank Pertanian, Universiti Sains Malaysia and Malaysia International Shipping Corporation (MISC). General Socharto the new elected President of Indonesia adopted a policy of peaceful co-operation with Malaysia. ASEA (now ASEAN) as proposed by Tunku was formed to include the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Singapore. Activists of the national language lobbied strongly for the passage of the National Language Act in Parliament. The ‘Salleh system’ was introduced whereby police beats were established within housing and commercial areas. Residential secondary schools introduced in rural districts. The DAP resurrected the idea of ‘Malaysian Malaysia’, fostering the anti-Malay and anti-Rulers sentiments. As a result, the Alliance Party was returned with a narrow victory in the 1969 general election. Chinese radicals celebrated the occasion throughout Kuala Lumpur. The Malays countered with a larger procession that finally exploded into the May 13 riots. With the declarations of emergency, Parliament was suspended and replaced by a National Operation Council (NOC) with Abdul Razak Hussein as the Director.

1970 - 1974
Sultan Abdul Halim Mua’dzam Shah of Kedah was elected the fifth Ruler. Abdul Razak Hussein became Prime Minister with Dr. Ismail Abdul Rahman as his deputy. The interim government introduced the New Economic Policy (NEP) to restructure society and eradicate poverty, the Rukunegara and National Culture Policy as the bases for national unity. Several new projects were completed including Central Bank building, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and a National Confederation Writers Associations (GAPENA) was instituted. ‘Bunga Raya’, the first Malaysian commercial ship was launched. Other establishments included the Urban Development Authority (UDA), National Fisheries Development Board (LKIM) and the Centre for Youth Development to train Malay youth in technical competencies. Abdul Razak was the first Malaysian Premier to visit the Communist Block – Russian and China – and met Mao Tze Tung to discuss common bilateral issues. The MSA (Malaysia-Singapore Airline) was seprated into Malaysia Airlines System (MAS) and Singapore International Airlines(SIA). Kuala Lumpur was declared a city and the Tourism Development Corporation (TDC) were incorporated. In order to focus on development and reduce inter-party bickering Abdul Razak formed the ‘Barisan Nasional’ (Nasionla Front) through a coalition with several opposition parties. Economics slow-down forced agriculture to be re-emphasissed among the population. A new general election in 1974 brought victory for the BN with DAP and PRM losing heavily and Kuala Lumpur was declared the new Federal Territory.

malaysiahistory 1975-19791975 - 1979
Sultan Yahya Petra of Kelantan became the sixth Ruler. ‘Green Book’ scheme encouraged agriculture among smallholders and agricultural products began to be exported. Oil palm emerged as a major source of national income especially with further development of land settlement schemes and oil palm factories in the interior. Following the decease of Abdul Razak, Hussein Onn became the third Prime Minister and Dr. Mahathir Mohamad appointed as deputy. The Third Malaysia Plan was launched with the NEP as the thrust. As a result of a power struggle between the President, Asri Muda and the Chief Minister of Kelantan, Mohd, Nasir, PAS fractured into factions. Supporters of the factions rioted, resulting in the declaration of emergency in Kelantan. MAS workers went on strike to demand better pay. Political consideration brought the Labour Party to be declared illegal and all forms of political gatherings were made unlawful including the association of local labour groups with international bodies and the use of the ‘moon and stars’ as a symbol for political parties. PAS broke away from the National Front and changed its symbol to the ‘full moon’. BN gained victorious in the 1978 general election in all status including Kelantan. In education, the national education policy expanded to include co-curricular activities and in fisheries, the fresh water culture was propagated. With the passing of Sultan Yahya Petra, Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang was enthroned as the seventh Ruler. To improve the quality of life, the suburban housing scheme was rapidly implemented.

malaysiahistory 1980-19841980 - 1984
The Amanah Saham Nasional (National Unit Trust) was launched as a part of the New Economic Policy. HICOM and Kedah Cement inaugurated the new heavy industry policy. Hussein Onn passed on the country’s leadership to his deputy, Dr. Mahathir Muhamad, Musa Hitam east aside the challenge of Tg. Razaleigh for UMNO’s deputy presidency and was made the Deputy Prime Minister. Dr. Mahathir immediately declared several new national policies including a common time zone for the Peninsula, Sabah and Sarawak, the punch card and name tag system and a ‘clean, efficient and trustworthy’ administration, the calculation of Islamic values in public services and ‘Malaysia Incorporated’. Through a dawn raid of the London Stock Exchange, Malaysians took control of the London registered British trading firms of Guthric, Sime Darby and Harrison Crossfield. A ‘buy Malaysian first’ and ‘buy British last’ campaign was launched to counter the British condescending attitude. Perwaja Steel Mill, the International Islamic University and the Islamic Bank were incorporated. The ‘drive with care’ campaign was launched and statutory death penalty was introduced in the anti-drug law. Other projects include the mobile library, the Edaran Otomobil Nasional (EON), Airod, TV3 and Universiti Utara Malaysia. For the second time, Tg. Razaleigh failed to dislodge Musa Hitam as UMNO’s Deputy President, and his finance portfolio was passed on to Daim Zainuddin Sultan Mahmood Iskandar of Johor was installed as the eight Ruler.

1985 - 1989
The first national car, Proton Saga, was launched, followed by the Iswara. New projects include the Penang Bridge, the Agricultural Park in Bukit Cherakah and farmer’s market its debut. Musa Hitam tendered his resignation as Deputy Prime Minister and Ghafar Baba was appointed in his place. The Malaysian government took over the British High Commissioner’s residency – the Carcosa Seri Negara. A leadership struggle in UMNO ended with victory for the Mahathir-Ghafar team over the Tg. Razaleigh-Musa team, but UMNO was declared illegal in an ensuing high court case brought by the dissidents. Dr. Mahathir re-registered UMNO as UMNO(Baru) whilst the dissidents formed Semangat 46. Dr. Mahathir offered ministerial posts to Tg. Razaleigh and Musa but both refused. ‘Operation Lalang’ launched against those who openly raised sensitive issues of Malay indigenuity and the national language. The Ministry of Federal Territory was abolished and the new ministers appointed were Mohamad Rahmat for the Ministry of Information and Sabaruddin Chik for the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism. The government renewed confidence brought in the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Kuala Lumpur and the unconditional surrender of the remnant of the Malayan Communist Party terrorists. Sultan Azlan Shah of Perak succeeded as the ninth Ruler.

1990 - 1994malaysiahistory 1990-1994
Dr. Mahathir courageously championed the impoverished nations and was halted as the ‘Third World Hero’. The Quality Service Award, the ‘Visit Malaysia Year’, The Malaysian Institute of Islamic Understanding (IKIM) and the privatization of the Tenaga Nasional and Pos Malaysia were launched. Hamid Omar, the Lord President, introduced the songkok as the attire of Justices and Malay as the language of courtrooms. The 1990 general election returned PAS as the Kelantan government and UMNO debut in Sabah. The Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) separated from that of Singapore. Daim Zainuddin resigned as Minister of Finance and was replaced by Anwar Ibrahim. The economy expanded tremendously enabling more Malays to become corporate figures. UMNO gained more confidence and accepted the Sabah aborigines as a members. The University Malaysia Sarawak was incorporated. The constitutional crisis reduced the Royal immunity. The KLSE continued with remarkable performances. Proton Perdana, Perodua Kancil and the first Malaysian light aircraft were launched. The Malaysian armed forces continued to serve in the UN peacekeeping duties worldwide. UMNO elected Anwar Ibrahim as the new Deputy President. Socio-economically, Tajuddin Ramli took control of the Malaysian eventually lost it to the BN when many of the representatives made a turn-around. The North-South highway was completed. Tuanku Jaafar, Yantuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan, was elected as the 10th Ruler.

1995 - 1999malaysiahistory 1995-1999
The opposition joined the government in protesting against the French nuclear test in the Pacific. Proton Perdana, Tiara and Perodua Rusa were launched. Dr. Mahathir repeatedly appealed for world peace. Among others he was bestowed  the title ‘Dragon of Bosnia’. DAP failed to capture Penang, University Malaysia Sabah, Multimedia University and University Tun Abdul Tazak incorporated. Dr. Mahathir made on-line speeches on the Internet and newspapers opened web pages. The first Malaysian satellite was launched and telcos such as Maxis, Adam, Mega TV, Digi, Metro Vision and Astro began operation. Malaysian motorcycle ‘Modenas’. LRT and Putrajaya mega project initiated. Semangat 46 disbanded, most members rejoined UMNO. UMNO’s Golden Jubilee, Seventh Malaysia Plan launched. Razali Ismail elected as UN President. Dr. Mahathir took three months leave, Anwar Ibrahim appointed acting PM. ASEAN currencies, including Ringgit, plunged as Soros Manipulated the market. Michael Camdessus urged Anwar to accept IMF funding, raised the interest rate up to 17% thus pushing the economy into recession. Dr. Mahathir buried home, established the Malaysian Economic Consultative Council under Daim, lowered the interest rate to 4% and pegged RM 3.80 to 1USD. Anwar ousted and Abdullah Ahmad Badawi appointed as Deputy Prime Minister. Kuala Lumpur Tower, Kuala Lumpur City Centre and Kuala Lumpur International Airport were completed. The Commonwealth Games and Asia Pacific Economic Conferrence (APEC) held in Kuala Lumpur. For the first time, Malaysians witnessed the Formula 1 Race in Sepang. Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah of Selangor was elected the 11th Ruler. 1999 election – PAS won Kelantan & Terengganu.

2000 - 2001malaysiahistory 2000-2001
Zeti Akhtar Aziz and Siti Norma Yaakub became the first woman Central Bank Governor and Federal Court Judge respectively. Proton launched ‘Waja’ with its new logo. Putrajaya became the third Federal Territory. EAC is the result of Dr. Mahathir’s brainchild EAEG in the 1990’s. Dr. Mahathir was honored with Lifetime Achievement Award from LARIBA (Los Angeles Reliable Investment Bankers Associates), Chicago for sterring Malaysia out of the 1997 recession and a doctorate by the Meiji University Japan. Razali Ismail, the UN Special Envoy, negotiated the released of Aung San Suu Kyi from political detention by the Myanmar Junta. Puteri UMNO inaugurated. Malaysia achieved the SEA Game overall championship. The international solar car race came to Malaysia. Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin Jamalullail of Peris became the 12th Ruler. Dr. Mahathir portcally expressed the ‘meaning of independence’ while PAS was emboldened by religious radicalism. Al-Maunah stole weapons from an army camp in Grik but were soon captured. PAS mocked it as ‘staged’ and continued with their tactics of using mosques for political purposes. A fanatical group attacked Guar Chempedak Polis Station but was repelled. PAS infiltrated private religious schools (SAR) and the Institutions of Higher Learning that lead to student demonstrations. The Opposition sponsored demonstrations on the streets and highways caused inconveniences tio the public and destruction of public amenities. The bombing of Jakarta supermarket by a Malaysian religious fanati delighted PAS members. The bombing of the New York Twin Towers elimaxed religious terrorism, and President Bush consulted Dr. Mahathir on the Malaysian Internal Security Act (ISA).

2002 - 2003
Dr. Mahathir met Bush in the White House and Pope John Paul at the Vatican City on their invitation. The ‘Dinner Mas’ was proposed as the world exchange currency. At the closing of UMNO’s AGM, Dr. Mahathir declared his retirement and appointed Abdullah Ahmad Badawi as successor but was persuaded to remain until October 2003. Arafat contacted Dr. Mahathir for assistance from Israel’s attack. The Sanggang by-election demonstrated the violent and vulgar campaign tactics of the Oppositions, which lead to the suggestion for stricter laws and regulations. The ERL to KLIA, Perodua’s Kelisa and Proton’s Arena were launched. Malaysia assembled the Deftech armored car in Pekan. Sipadan dan Ligitan Islands declared as Malaysian territories, Singapore occupied Pulau Batu Putih. The first Malaysian hovercraft exhibited. Modenas Karisma scooter launched. Kuala Lumpur monorail opened to the public. Dr. Mahathir was bestowed the highest State Award by Lebanese President. The Heads of States and Governments of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Organization of Islamic Countries(OIC) met in Kuala Lumpur. The purchase of jet fighters, submarines and tanks strengthened the country’s defense. In Selangor, the mobile computer programme encouraged children to familiarize themselves with IT. The national ‘social services’ programme for the fifth formers and the teaching of English by means of computers for the first graders were launched. Malaysians now controlled the cyber world and lead in technological development. Dr. Mahathir passed the country’s leadership to Abdullah Ahmad Badawi as the fifth Prime Minister.

2004-20052004 - 2005
Y.A.B. Dato’ Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, fondly known as Pak Lah to all Malaysian, appointed Y.A.B. Dato’ Seri Mohd Najid Tun Razak as Deputy Prime Minister. The administrative agenda was characterized by the slogan ‘excellence, distinction and glory’ with ‘work with me’ call. BN party won the 11th general election with a ‘landslide’ victory with 199 seats while PAS, PKR, DAP and Independent candidates secured 20 seats. Terengganu was won over from PAS and Kelantan narrowly loss by two seats. Islam Hadhari with its 10 principles was introduced. Proton launched its new model, Gen 2. The National Service was introduced for the youth. Pak Lah thawed the estranged relationship with Singapore and the United States and strengthended bilateral ties with Indonesia, China, Japan and Cuba. Malaysia continued the chairmanship of OIC and NAM with active international participation. At the meeting of MSC Panel of Advisers, Bill Gates promised assistance for ICT in primary schools. The National Fitness Council was launched. PM’s wife, YABhg. Datin Seri Endon Mahmood actively promoted batik dress internationally and kebaya dress nationally. The 2004 Merdeka celebration was themed as: Agriculture as the Foundation on National Economy to jumpstart the agricultural sector as the new engine of growth and inculcate intensified research into biotechnology. UMNO celebrated the formation of the Putera UMNO wing. The National Intergrity Plan was launched. An International sport, the Mansoon Cup, was initiated in Terengganu. The 2005 Merdeka celebration was themed: Education as the Foundation of Human Capital to realign education as the centerpiece of national development. Malaysia human expertise was sent to India, Latin America, West Asia, Africa and especially to Saudi Arabia to help construct the ‘jamrah’ at Mina. Malaysia hosted the ASEAN summit and ringgit was floated from its American dollar peg. The PM’s wife YABhg. Datin Seri Endon Mahmood succumbed to her illness.

malaysiahistory 2006-2007
2006 -2007
Prime Minister YAB Dato Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi fondly known as Pak Lah to all Malaysians, launched the Ninth Malaysia Plan (MP9) with five major strategics. Emphasis on producing vast human capital with world class stature, arresting the socioeconomic imbalance, enhancing the economy, better quality of life, houses made affordable to all, and better services from the institutions, the development of Malaysia as the halal hub, the focus on medical tourism, facilitating business through PEMUDAH panel – Special Taskforce to Facilitate Business, intensification of e-government throughout the country, 30% gender initiative for women in seior administration: the appointment of Zainah Anwar as the chairperson of the Security Commission, Professor Rafiah Salim as the Vice Chancellor of University Malaya, Professor Sharifah Hafsah Syed Hassan as Vice Chancellor University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). Installation of the 13th Yang Dipertuan Agong, DYMM Al-Wathiqu Billah Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin Ibni Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah. The Supreme Court Complex open its doors. Perodua launched the Viva whilst Proton its new model, the Persona. International TV, Al-Jazeera established a base in Kuala Lumpur. KLCI breached 1300 points. The success of the Merdeka de Everest group in reaching the world’s summit. The SMART (Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel) only one in its category in the world, opened to public. Exhibition of the TUAV – Tactical Unmanned Air Vehicle. Inauguration of the WIFE – World Islamic Econimic Forum in Kuala Lumpur. Prime Minister was bestowed with the highest Order from Indonesia and Russia as well the Global Leadership Award from the Napoleon Hill foundation. The PM married Ms Jeanne Abdullah. The gradual launching of the development corridors: Wilayah Iskandar (IRDA), East Coast Economic Region(ECER), Nothern Corridor Economic Region (NCER). Malaysia celebrates the success of Dr. Sheikh Muszaphar as an astronaut.

2008 - 2009malaysiahisstory 2008-2009
KLCI recorded the highest point in history, exceeding 1500 points, as 2008 dawned, Pak Lah launched the Sabah Development Corridor and the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy. Proton introduced a revised Saga model. Professor Dr. Mazlan Othman was the first Malaysia woman to specialize in astronomy and astrophysics. Siti Norma Yaakob became the first woman judge to sit on the Dubai International Finance Court. Robiah Abdul Ghani became head of Pahang Police force while Nicol David held the world title in squash. The hefty increase of crude oil price and the work of rogue speculators plunged the world into deep recession. Share market the world over crashed. Howeveer the Government took corrective measures including injecting a stimulus package, to weather the storm. The 12th general election: BN win with slim majority, the coalition of opposition partires won in five states. In Perak, three councillors quit, enabling the BN to take control of the state. What ensued a series of street demonstrations and unrest by the oppositions. Pak Lah launched the SPRM. March 2009 Pak Lah relinquished his post to his deputy YAB Dato’ Seri Mohd Najib Tun Razak. YAB Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin made the new deputy Prime Minister. U.S. President Barrack Obama was one of the first to call and congratulate Najib. Najib’s first act as Prime Minister was to make surprise visits to various places to gauge for himself problems faced by the masses. 1Malaysia launched followed by Amanah Saham 1Malaysia open to all Malaysians. Kuala Lumpur bestoyed the status of Traditional Islamic City by ISESCO. Proton introduced the ‘Exora’ whilst Perodua the ‘Viva Elite’. Najib declared the Key Performance Indicators applicable to cabinet members to be reviewed biannually. Next he outlined the six discipline to be viewed under the NKRA. Najib visited the Asean neighbours for closer ties. The China visit marks the 35th anniversary of friendly relations started by his late father Tun Razak and chairman Mao. Najib launched the Special Economic Zone of ECER. The first Malaysian submarine, the KD Tunku Abdul Rahman arrived to patrol the Malaysian waters. The model of the Malaysian F1 car that will participate next year’s race, was unveiled to the public. The Harvard School of Business Studies, Boston, will launch a case study on how Najib steered Malaysian out of the recession. Meanwhile Najib’s wife, YABhg Datin Seri Rosmah Mansor unrelently nursed PERMATA to greater heights nationally and praised and modeled by some African nations.

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